Jumat, 24 Mei 2013

GRAMMAR ON TOEFL TEST


I wanna explain about grammar on toefl test. I will discuss some of the few materials that are often out on the toefl test.

NORMAL SENTENCE PATTERN IN ENGLISH

Subject (S) + Verb (V) + Complement (C) + Modifier (M)

1. Subject
the subject is the agent of the sentence in the active voice; it is the person or thing that performs or is responsible for the action of the sentence, and usually located before the verb. The subject may be a single noun (ex: Coffee is delicious).

Examples of subjects :
  •  We girls are not going to the movie
  •  The bank closed at two o’clock


2. Verb
The verb follows the subject in a declarative sentence; it generally shows the action of the sentence. The verb may be a single word (ex: John drives too fast).

Examples of verbs :
  • She will go to Bali next week
  • He must has gone to the bank
  • Ani is watching television


3. Complement
A complement completes the verb.  It is similar to the subject. A complement answers the question what? Or whom?.

Examples of complements :
  • Nick was driving a new car                          (what was Nick driving? -> a new car)
  • She saw Zac Efron at the movies last night    (whom that she see at the movies? -> Zac Efron)


4. Modifier
A modifier tells the time, place, or manner of the action.

Examples of modifier :
  • Joe was swimming in the pool
  • Where was Joe swimming? -> in the pool
  • We ate dinner at seven o’clock
  • When did we eat dinner? -> at seven o’clock


TENSES

1. Simple present tense
This tense is usually not use to indicate present time. However, it is used to indicate present time (now) with the following stative verbs; know, understand, have, believe, hate, need, hear love, appear, see, see, like seem, smell, want, taste, wish, sound, and own. Simple present tense is also used to indicate a regular or habitual action.

Examples :
  • We want to live now  (stative verb)
  • Kev usually walks to school everyday  (habitual action)


2. Present Progressive (continuous)

Subject  +  {am; is;  are}  +  [verb + ing]
The  present progressive is used to indicate present time (now) with all but the stative verbs listed previously. It is also used to indicate future time.

Examples :
  • The secretary is typing the letter now  (present time)
  • We are flying to Mekkah next month  (future time)


3. Simple Past Tense
The simple past is used for a completed action that happened at one specific time in the past.

Examples :
  • Jerry went to Spain last year
  • Mark washed the dishes after dinner


4. Past Progressive (continuous)

Use of Past Progressive
a.. puts emphasis on the course of an action in the past
    Example: He was playing football.
b. two actions happening at the same time (in the past)
    Example: While she was preparing dinner, he was washing the dishes.
c. action going on at a certain time in the past
    Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang

5. Present Perfect


Subject  +  [has/have]  +  [verb in past participle] …

We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.

Examples :
  • I have seen that movie twenty times.
  • We have already written our reports
  • Maria hasn’t called her parents yet


6. Present Perfect Progressive (continuous)

Subject  +  [has/have]  +  been  +  [verb+ing]

Use of Present Perfect Progressive
a. puts emphasis on the duration or course of an action (not the result)
    Example: She has been writing for two hours.
b. action that recently stopped or is still going on
    Example: I have been living here since 2001.
c. finished action that influenced the present
    Example: I have been working all afternoon.

7. Past Perfect

Subject  +  had  +  [verb in past participle]…
           
Examples :
  • You had studied English before you moved to New York.
  • John went home after he had gone to the store


8. Past Perfect Progressive (continuous)

Subject  + had  + been  +  [verb+ing]…

Examples :
Nate had been working at the university for forty-five years before he retired

The Example of Grammar in Toefl Questions

1. With the passing of time and the encroachment of people, the habitat of gorillas ______ to decrease.
a                 a. Continuing
b        b. Which continue
c        c. Continues
d        d. That it has continued
         Answer :   c. continues
                           Because this is sentence to use simple present tense

2.   Despite being basically arboreal in nature, koalas ________ to inhabit a specific territory and range of some 30 square miles.
a. Knowing
b          b. Which know
            c. Are knowing
d          d. Are known
Answer :   d. are known
Because this is sentence to use simple past tense

That's some grammar material is often out in the toefl test that I can explain. May be useful for us :)

source
TOEFL preparation guide book

1 komentar: